Types Of Peace Agreement

57The other potential for economic provision lies in the creation of peace dividends. The economy can provide tangible benefits to veterans, although there are economic opportunities such as employment, ministerial positions or education. It therefore provides decisive support to GDR programmes. One of the main problems is that the post-conflict economic recovery is never immediate: the economic dividends of peace need time to materialize and, in their absence, ex-combatants often resort to parallel economies or the continuation of violent appropriation. 21An important issue remains the ownership of land and natural resources. So far, the issue has been postponed to the referendum on South Sudan`s independence. If South Sudan becomes independent, the union of the three transition zones – Abyei, South Kordofan, Blue Nile – will have to be managed. The Abyei Conflict Resolution Protocol of 26 May 2004 provides for a referendum on whether Abyei wants to be part of North or South Sudan (Article 1.3). The three transition zones are important north-south trade relations, possess natural resources such as oil, gold and water, and are a potential source of future conflicts [23]. North Sudan is not expected to suffer the loss of significant oil deposits. Conflicts of resources and land ownership therefore have the potential to undermine peace-building.

50The integration of economic provisions therefore remains the art of the possible. The mediator must assess the benefits of inclusion on a case-by-case basis. Even if the integration of the economy offers better prospects for recovery, too much pressure could derail the entire peace process. As a result, the Ombudsman can take a progressive approach and focus first on military and political issues, while the agreement remains flexible to involve the economy in the future [43]. The trend towards more flexible and less specific peace agreements may illustrate the practical difficulties of integrating economic provisions into peace agreements [44].